Flüchtlinge 1947 und 2007

Anlässlich der Vorbereitungen zum 1. APC im Jahr 2007 vernetzte sich Ernst Löschner mit zahlreichen Wissenschaftlern, mit Zeitzeugen und einer Schriftstellerin, um

(i) die Ereignisse zu erhellen, die sich vor, während und nach dem jüdischen Exodus über den Krimmler Tauern abspielten, und

(ii) die Situation der Flüchtlinge heute zu thematisieren.

Die Beiträge, die sich aus dieser Vernetzung ergeben haben, sind im Folgenden angeführt.

I. Die Situation um 1947

Dieser Abschnitt enthält mehrere Beiträge:

Harald Waitzbauer analysiert die historischen Zusammenhänge, die zur Judenflucht über den Krimmler Tauern 1947 führten.

Thomas Albrich beschreibt diesbezüglich den österreichischen Nachkriegsantisemitismus. Er hatte sich bereits 1997 (anlässlich des 50-jährigen Gedenkens an die Judenflucht 1947) mit dem jüdischen Exodus durch Österreich wissenschaftlich auseinandergesetzt und zwei Bücher herausgegeben, eines auf Deutsch („Flucht nach Eretz Israel“, Studienverlag: Innsbruck-Wien 1998), das andere auf Englisch („Escape through Austria“, Frank Cass: London-Portland, Oregon 2002).

Viktor Knopf war einer der Bergführer, der die damals 5.000 flüchtenden Juden begleitete (vgl. seine eigene Beschreibung “Flucht über den Krimmler Tauern“). Peter Hofer verfasste ein Portrait von Liesl Geisler-Scharfetter, die damalige Hüttenwirtin des Krimmler Tauernhauses, in seinen Erinnerungen an die Menschlichkeit .

Marko Feingold war ehemaliger Mitarbeiter der jüdischen Fluchthilfeorganisation BRICHA. Sein Portrait und jenes von weiteren Zeitzeugen, die über Einladung von BNP Paribas an den Feierlichkeiten teilgenommen haben, sind Fixpunkte dieses historischen Rückblicks.

Ausgangspunkt für die Flucht über den Krimmler Tauern war das Lager Givat Avoda in Saalfelden. Sabine Aschauer-Smolik berichtet über die Nachforschungen zu diesem Lager. Leider sind die diesbezüglichen historischen Fotos verschollen

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. Dieses Projekt gibt Hoffnung, dass sie wieder auftauchen.

Vor allem im Jahr 2007, aber auch noch in den Folgejahren, erschienen mehrere Artikel in in- und ausländischen Printmedien, die von APC inspiriert wurden
. Zwei Artikel seien hervorgehoben: der Artikel von Judith Brandner „Schaut’s net aus’m Fenster“, der am 18. August 2007 im „Spectrum“ von „Die Presse“ erschienen ist, sowie der Artikel „Über Stock und über Stein“, den Michael Kerbler für das „Album“ von „Der Standard“ vom 18. Juni 2011 verfasste.

“Das Trauma der Überlebenden der Shoah” wird von Brigitte Lueger-Schuster beschrieben.

Helga Embacher analysiert die Schwierigkeiten der Flüchtlinge während Ihrer Rückführung nach Israel und den USA.

Weitere Literaturempfehlungen:

Susanne Rolinek, Jüdische Lebenswelten 1945-55
Thomas Albrich, Flucht nach Eretz Israel, Studienverlag: Innsbruck-Wien 1998
Thomas Albrich, Escape through Austria, Frank Cass: London-Portland, Oregon 2002

II. Die Situation 2007

Flüchtlinge sind oft mit traumatischen Erfahrungen konfrontiert, die sie nur mit therapeutischer Hilfe bewältigen können. Der Artikel von Brigitte Lueger-Schuster beschreibt Psychotraumata von Flüchtlingen, wie sie derzeit von Flüchtlingen in Österreich verarbeitet werden müssen.

Reinhard Dörflinger beschreibt in seinem Artikel, wie die “Ärzte ohne Grenzen” in ihrer internationalen Arbeit auf die Grundbedürfnisse von Flüchtlingen eingehen.